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Advances, Systems and Applications

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Table 1 Context-aware citizen services framework for smart cities

From: A framework for cloud-based context-aware information services for citizens in smart cities

Components orProcedures Description (e.g. What?) Goals/Objectives (e.g. Why?) Operationalisation (e.g. How?) Stakeholders (e.g. Who?) Usefulness
Process Models
Data Processes Processes related to datacollection & acquisition,cleansing and filtering,harmonisation and integration To ensure high quality raw datais collected and transformedinto application specific targetdata model Apache Solr, AppacheCassandra, (Geo-)SPARQL andRDF query languages, ISO19100 series of standards, OGCPUCK protocol, OpenGISSimple Feature Implementation specs (CORBA, OLE/COM) Data custodians e.g. cityadministrations, local agenciesincluding security, environment, energy, transport, andeconomic development, officeof national statistics, Eurostat,etc. Business organisations e.g. insurance companies,utility services etc. GeneralPublic e.g. citizens, NGOs Refinement of data andusability for variety ofapplications to getcross-disciplinaryinformation intelligence
Service Processes Process related to thematicservice discovery, servicechaining and/or workflowcomposition To discover and connect withrequired utility services UDDI, (CSW-)ebRIM, OGC OWSstandards - WCS (metadatadiscovery), CSW (discovery),WMS (view), WFS (download),GeoAPI Service consumers e.g. business organisations, public administrations, general public, etc. Service producers e.g. IT research industry, SMEs, statistical and IT experts etc Service oriented approachsupports process agility byusing service plug-n-playfeature
Analytical Processes Analysis algorithms, statisticalmodels, reasoning To identify and use existingand new algorithms (machinelearning, data mining etc) andmodels to analyse applicationspecific data and generaterequired output Hadoop MapReduce,RapidMiner, R, OGC WPS   Knowledge generation cansupport decision making
Security Processes Authorisation, Anonymity,Encryption To ensure that properinformation securitymeasures are applied ISO/IEC 10181-4:1997 - Security Framework for Open System, GeoXACML Cyber security providers e.g.SMEs. Beneficiers e.g. generalpublic. Provides increased privacy andestabilishes trust on the system
User InteractionProcesses Visualisation, Simulation,Interactivity To facilitate end users byproviding intuitive GUI tointeract with applications Lynx Browser, OGC OpenLS,OGC Web 3D Service, WMS,OpenGIS SLD, OGC WMTS Social scientists, e.g. expertsin socio-technical aspects.SMEs e.g. IT developers, etc..End users e.g. general public,etc. Increases application usabilityand intuitiveness
Resource managementProcesses Resource utilisation,virtualisation, performanceand reliability To ensure that systemresources are utilised to theirmaximum potential Public, private and hybridcloud infrastructure e.g. IBMSmart City Control Centre IT Administrators Results in efficient resourceutilisation that can contributetowards green computing
Organisational Processes Business organisation andinstitutional processes Aligning theinformation processing with businessprocesses BPMN, BPEL Organisations e.g. MetOffice, Disaster managementauthority, Tourismdevelopment, Publictransport authority, Energydistributor, etc. Ability to adopt organisationalprocesses can result wideradoption
Data Models
Data Management Standards and management of data and metadata Structured (SQL/NoSQL based)and non-structured datamanagement, Relational,Object-oriented, Cube, Spatialdata models, Adoption of dataand metadata standards suchas ISO 19000, Dublin Core etc OpenGIS specification basedMySQL, NuoDB, Oracle, MS SQLServer, PostgreSQL - PostGIS,Apache Cassandra, CouchDB,MongoDB, SimpleDB,DynamoDB Data modellers andadministrators e.g. IT experts Ability to store, retrieve, updateand manage data
Metadata and Datastructure    Dublin Core, DBLP, OSImetadata standards - 19115,JSON, OGC NetCDF, EOmetadata profile, CityGML,OGC TJS Data providers andcustodians e.g. cityadministrations, environmentalagencies, office of nationalstatistics, Eurostat, etc. GeneralPublic e.g. citizens. Increases understanding andpromotes reusability of datamodels
Contextual Models
Structuring andProfiling User profiles and preferences To structure contextinformation that can bereused for specific users andenvironments ContextML, OGC Context standard, KML standard, OWL, RDF, OGC Web Map Context Document, Context casting Social scientists. IT experts. End users e.g. general public, etc. Personalisation of informationenhances usability
Context Exchange Understandable contextdescription for reusabilitypurposes To enable exchange contextinformation between variousservices and components    Exchanging context betweenvarious services helps toimprove context-awareinformation processing andprovision
Context Management Context entity and relationshipmodel To manage context data modeland associated actions forspecific circumstances andenvironments    Structured management ofcontext models enhancesreusability and improvesapplication performance
Citizen Participation
Information provision Awareness raising, Informationprovision, communication To provide contextually related information to citizens and enable them to participate in decision making processes Web 2.0/3.0, WS-Notification End users e.g. general public, local business organisations, etc. Contextual information forbetter decisions
Data collection Crowd sourcing, Citizenscience, Public participationand engagement   OGC SWE, SOS, SensorML,OpenLS, GeoSMS   Supporting participatorysensing and bottom-updemocracy
Behavioural Changemodels Behavioural changes ofindividuals or evolvingbusiness processes To identify changes inbehaviour of users due toenvironmental awareness Interventions, policies, StudyProtocol   Healthy and environmentfriendly behaviour change andbetter work productivity
Application Thematic Models
Thematic Applications Environment, Energy, Mobility,Security, Urban etc To use collected data forspecific application thematicdomains   Application domain experts e.g. energy, transport,planning, health etc. Application specific as well ascross-disciplinary integratedknowledge generation forbetter environmental andurban planning
Cyber-space Infrastructure
Hardware and software Cloud infrastructure, Sensors,RFIDs, Storage, Processing H/W,IoTs, software frameworks To apply related hardware andsoftware technologies OpenStack, Apache Cassandra IT experts and developers.SMEs e.g. sensors web,wireless ad-hoc networks,cloud infrastructure, serviceprovision etc. Use of contemporarytechnology for informationmanagement
Management Aspects
System Management Flow of Info, auditing andpricing, security To ensure that all componentsare well integrated andsupport flow of informationand an appropriate cost modelis developed WebMethods, Oracle BPMSuite, OpenText IT Administrators Enabling sustainable businessmodel
Service Federation
System of systems Application integration Applying standards and developing wrappers/adaptors to enable flow of information between multiple applications and systems Corba, Web Services IT experts and developers. SMEs. Research and Academia, Application domain experts Enabling inter-cloudinformation and resourceexchange
Interoperability Standards, service wrappers   W3C web standards, OASISRM-ODP, OGC services