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Advances, Systems and Applications

Table 4 Summary of recommended security solutions and impact on CIA

From: Fog computing security: a review of current applications and security solutions

Solution category



Data Encryption

Malicious insiders Data Breach Data Loss Insufficient Due Diligence Spyware/malicious processes

If data is breached either at rest, processing or motion, encryption will keep the original data hidden from unauthorized recipients

Preventing cache attacks

Insecure API Service and application vulnerabilities Sensitive data Leakage Sniffing attacks

If a Fog platform is acting as cache server, the frequently accessed (relevant and sensitive) data by users or other systems via Fog will remain private

Network monitoring

Advance Persistent Threats Access control issues Denial of Service attack Malicious Insiders Insufficient Due Diligence Abuse and Nefarious use of resources Data Breaches Attack detection

Can immediately notify about the ongoing attack, log malicious events for analysis, block suspicious ingress/egress network traffic and determine/indicate overall health and performance of system

Malware protection

Account Hijacking Insecure API Service and application vulnerabilities Data corruption/damage risks Shared Technology Issues Performance degradation

Provides real-time scanning and removal of known malicious applications (static analysis), protects against zero-day exploits by intelligent event/behaviour monitoring (dynamic analysis) and ensures consistent performance of the Fog platform

Wireless security

Advance Persistent Threats Access control issues Data breach Eavesdropping attacks Illegal bandwidth consumption

Fog nodes can increase their mobility in secure manner, enables more IoT devices to connect from anywhere and allows the Fog platform to become more cost effective

Securing vehicular networks

Advance Persistent Threats Access control issues Account/Session Hijacking Denial of Service attacks User identity protection

Increases road safety by preserving data communication integrity while keeping the user identity and location data private

Secured multi-tenancy

Access control issues Account Hijacking Insecure APIs Malicious Insiders Abuse and Nefarious use of resources Data Breaches Segregation Issues

Secure data collaboration among approved users, prevention of memory escaping/hopping attacks to protect each user’s space and increase in efficient use and allocation of Fog resources

Backup and recovery

Data Loss Data unavailability issues Insufficient Due Diligence Malware infection Data integrity issues

In case of natural disaster, malware infection or DoS attack, the data will remain available to users and system along with its integrity