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Advances, Systems and Applications

Table 4 Characterization of the different attacks originating from VMs

From: Classifying malware attacks in IaaS cloud environments

Attacks Impact Detectability Countermeasures Complx. Ref.
Network-based C/A E: Net. monitoring Secure channel (encryption) Low [38, 55]
VM-DoS A E: Net. monitoring QoS management Low [37]
Cache side-channels C D: heuristics and code, RTSC Static & dynamic page coloring High [56]
Mem. deduplication side-Channels C D: heuristics and code, RTSC Fuzzy timers High [40, 57]
Co-residency detection none D: Attack specific Unresolved problem Low [24]
VM Escape C/A/I Unresolved problem Patching, software engineering formal verification Low/Med. [45, 46]
Hypervisor-DoS A E: Availability monitoring Good isolation Low [5860]
Hypervisor info. Gain C D/unresolved Good isolation Low [43]
Anti-VMI Attacks none Unresolved problem Difficult: Attack specific Medium [49, 50]