^{†}In EVM, there are a spectrum of 32 different PUSH, DUP, and SWAP instructions, each starting from 1 to 32, e.g., PUSH1, DUP8, SWAP32. All of these instructions consume the same amount of gas, i.e., 3 units.
^{‡}Here {*}COPY stands for CALLDATACOPY, CODECOPY, or RETURNDATACOPY.
^{⋄}There are five LOG instructions in EVM, from LOG0 to LOG4. The variable “n” (as in LOG{n}) represents the number of *topics* for this log.
^{♦}The gas cost for CALL-like instructions are very complicated, see [14].