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Advances, Systems and Applications

Journal of Cloud Computing Cover Image

Table 2 Comparing out of gas exception with other exception types in EVM

From: Studying gas exceptions in blockchain-based cloud applications

Exception Type Occurence Percentage    
  All External Ratio All External
1) Explicit Revert      
Require-Style Revert (RR) 14,000,856 11,456,103 1.22 8.12% 64.91%
Assert-Style Revert (AR) 990,183 925,701 1.07 0.57% 5.24%
2) Out of Gas      
Deploy Out of Gas (DOG) 10,963 10,963 1 0% 0.06%
Execute Out of Gas (EOG) 155,373,273 4,281,071 36.29 90.09% 24.25%
3) Stack Overflow/Underflow      
Call-Stack Overflow (CSO) 10,032 1,113 9.01 0% 0.01%
Data-Stack Underflow (DSU) 153,445 53,501 2.87 0.09% 0.30%
Data-Stack Overflow (DSO) 152 152 1 0% 0.001%
4) Illegal Instruction      
Invalid Jump Destination (IJD) 1,341,130 1,306,785 1.03 0.78% 7.40%
Invalid Opcode (IO) 232,226 189,518 1.23 0.13% 1.07%
5) Not Enough Ether      
Insufficient Balance (IB) 359,822 356,517 1.01 0.21% 2.02%
6) Miscellanea      
Client Decision, Illegal Write, etc. 1,693 1,692 1.00 0% 0.01%
Summary      
Out of Gas (DOG + EOG) 155,384,236 4,291,945 36.20 90.09% 24.32%
Explicit Revert (RR + AR) 14,991,039 12,137,417 1.24 8.69% 68.77%
Other Exception Types 2,098,500 1,684,217 1.25 1.22% 9.54%
Summery (excluding DoS attacks)
Out of Gas (DOG + EOG) 4,666,508 4,233,428 1.10 21.86% 24.10%
Explicit Revert (RR + AR) 14,987,686 12,134,192 1.24 70.20% 69.07%
Other Exception Types 1,696,017 1,654,643 1.03 7.94% 9.42%